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Glossary

  Agate is a very common stone that is often used in jewelry. It is found in a wide range of colors, including black, gray, brown, reddish, green, pink, blue, and yellow. Agate can be flecked with color and is often banded, exhibiting layers of quartz. Agate is porous and takes dye easily; it is frequently dyed to enhance the coloration and the banding. White agate was used often in Victorian jewelry, mostly as a background. Moss agate has green, red or black dendritic inclusions. Onyx is agate whose bands are parallel. Eye agate has banding arranged in concentric circles.
Amber is the fossilized resin of ancient pine trees and comes in many colors, including yellow, reddish, whitish, black, and blue. Pressed amber consists of small pieces of amber that have been fused together to form a larger piece. 
Baroque pearls are pearls with an irregular non-spherical shape. Shapes can range from minor aberrations to distinctly ovoid, curved, pinch, or lumpy shapes. Most cultured freshwater pearls are baroque because freshwater pearls are mantle-tissue nucleated instead of bead nucleated.
Carnelian is another form of Chalcedony Quartz. It is orange-red to dark red and derives its name from cornel cherries, which share a similar color.  This translucent stone has a waxy luster. The best carnelian is from India.
Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. The distinguishing characteristic of precious corals is their durable and intensely colored red or pink skeleton, which is used for making jewelry.
Fluorite is a relatively popular gemstone and mineral, and the term 'fluorescent' was derived from the name of this stone. Colors vary widely, including purple, colorless, red, pink, yellow, green, blue, black, and multi-colored stones. Fluorite is found all around the world. 
Jade is a semi-precious stone that ranges in color from green to white to lilac to brown to almost black.  Jade, commonly known for its bright green color, is highly prized in many cultures, particularly the Chinese culture. There are two different minerals are known as jade: jadeite and nephrite. Jadeite is the harder of the two; it is usually used in jewelry production. Nephrite is slightly softer and is often veined; it is used in carvings, for making beautiful bowls and vases.The most valuable form of Jade is Imperial Jade, which is emerald green Jadeite.
Labradorite is named after Labrador, Canada. It shows a unique property called adularescence - it almost appears that there is a white or blue light shining from inside the gemstone.  It is a hard crystalline mineral that is reputed for its capability to display a wide variety of colors when light strikes it. It produces reflections of blue, green, yellow, violet, red and orange.
Lapis Lazuli has historically been used as a gemstone and remains well known today. It is an intense blue opaque gemstone and it shimmers and has white spots and streaks. Historically was ground into powder and used to create blue paint, before a synthetic method for creating the same colors was invented.

Onyx is a semi-precious stone that is black and white, generally arranged in layers. It is a form of agate with parallel banding. This structure lends itself to cameo making. Onyx is a species of chalcedony (microcrystalline quartz).

Quartz is one of the most common minerals on Earth, and many gemstones fall into the Quartz family.  Quartz is a crystalline mineral that come in many forms, including amethyst, aventurine, citrin, opal, rock crystal, tiger's eye, rose quartz,and many others. Rutilated quartz and tourmalinated quartz have needle-like inclusions of other minerals. 
Turquoise is a green-blue or sky-blue gems, and in French the name means 'Turkish Stone'; this is due to the fact that the stone was introduced to Europe from Turkey originally. Historically it has been valued by many civilisations, and maintains its popularity today due to its striking blue color.
Zircon is not well known, but is exceedingly important in the gemstone trade due to its many similarities to Diamond. Zircon comes in a variety of colors, and has a sparkle shared with Diamond that many other gemstones may lack.  The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, blue, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond and are also known as "Matura diamond".

 

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